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Blog Virology

Ebola Strikes Again in the DRC

A second simultaneous Ebola outbreak has been confirmed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), (World Health Organization, 2020). This marks the 11th Ebola outbreak in central Africa which comes at a time when the continent also battles the COVID-19 pandemic.

First discovered in 1976, ebola viruses have since re-emerged across the African continent. The virus reached international attention during the longest and most extensive Ebola outbreak in West Africa between 2013 – 2015.

Historical Ebola outbreaks have fatality rates as high as 88%, almost 9 out of 10 people would die as a result of infection. The West Africa outbreak, however, saw a drastic reduction in fatality rate, to around 40%. The reduction in fatality rate was likely a result of the increased basic support, advanced and more appropriate care for those infected and earlier case detection, allowing for better management of both patients and outbreak spread (Baseler et al., 2017).

The most recent outbreak is in Mbandaka in the Équateur region, 600 miles from the ongoing Kivu Ebola epidemic in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces. The cases in Mbandaka are thought to be separate from the Kivu Ebola epidemic and instead the result of a new ‘spillover’ event from an animal reservoir to humans.

As of the 10th of June, a total of 12 cases have been reported; 9 confirmed cases, 3 suspected cases and 6 deaths, (Bujakera, Holland and Heavens, 2020)*. Positive samples were confirmed via testing at the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) – the countries national medical research organisation.

Although case number is relatively small at present, this is likely to rise as contacts are traced and the incubation period of 2-21 days elapses. Whilst the outbreak has presented at an already challenging time, scientists and doctors are on the ground with capacity to trace and diagnose. This service was expanded and refined in 2018 in response to previous outbreaks (World Health Organization, 2020).

The Kivu Ebola epidemic began in August 2018, over 3,400 people have been infected and sadly 2,200 lives lost despite the implementation of aggressive control measures. A number of factors have hindered this operation including; stigmatization, civil unrest and logistical issues.

Community level prevention and outbreak measures are dependent on the public trusting local authorities, however 31.9% of 961 individuals surveyed in North Kivu trusted that local authorities were acting in their best interests. The same survey reported 25.5 % of those surveyed believed the outbreak was a hoax, (Vinck et al., 2019). Complicating this were populist politicians publishing their own doubts on the outbreak validity to gain support in the 2018 elections. The country had not yet had a peaceful transition of power since decolonialisation in 1960, (Moran, 2018).

However, deployment of an experimental vaccine, coupled with rapid diagnostics helped to halt the outbreak. Following emergency use in 2016, the Ervebo vaccine was finally approved for use in 2019, after clinical trial demonstrated safety and efficacy; 97.5% efficacy in preventing Ebola infection compared to no vaccination, (Regules et al., 2015; World Health Organization, 2019).

Although an effective vaccination is now available, this is by no means the end of the problem. Availability, difficulties in contact tracing and public perception are all challenges that must be addressed to manage the outbreak during an already arduous time.

It is hoped that authorities and individuals alike can action their learnings from previous outbreaks, to bring this new outbreak to a swift end.

The DRC is currently contending with outbreaks of cholera, SARS-CoV-2, measles and two separate Ebola clusters. This serves as a stark reminder that whilst the world fights against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Ebola outbreaks will stop for no country and no person.

Viruses emerge, or spillover often in nature, ebola virus is an example of this. Check out our blog on viral emergence here, or our post about bats and viruses.

*Please note that this article is not by a scientific body and reports figures from a WHO press conference which could not be confirmed on WHO.int.

Written by Charlotte Rigby

Citations

Baseler, L. et al. (2017) ‘The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease’, Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, 12(1), pp. 387–418. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-052016-100506.

Bujakera, S., Holland, H. H. and Heavens, A. (2020) Up to 12 infected in Congo’s new Ebola outbreak: WHO, Reuters.

Moran, B. (2018) ‘Fighting Ebola in conflict in the DR Congo’, The Lancet. Elsevier, 392(10155), pp. 1295–1296. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32512-1.

Regules, J. A. et al. (2015) ‘A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine’, New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts Medical Society, 376(4), pp. 330–341. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414216.

Vinck, P. et al. (2019) ‘Institutional trust and misinformation in the response to the 2018–19 Ebola outbreak in North Kivu, DR Congo: a population-based survey’, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19(5), pp. 529–536. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30063-5.

World Health Organization (2019) Preliminary results on the efficacy of rVSV-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccine using the ring vaccination strategy in the control of an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: an example of integration of research into epidemic response. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.125084.

World Health Organization (2020) New Ebola outbreak detected in northwest Democratic Republic of the Congo; WHO surge team supporting the response. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/01-06-2020-new-ebola-outbreak-detected-in-northwest-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-who-surge-team-supporting-the-response (Accessed: 2 June 2020).

COVID-19 Infographics

Glossary of a Pandemic

Post originally on instagram

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a lot of terminology to people and understandably it can be confusing trying to keep up. So here is the glossary of a pandemic!

We’ve put together a quick glossary of common words to help you engage with articles and question topics as they come up.

Things like: what’s the difference between SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19? 🦠

Who is a carrier? 👥

What does a ventilator do? 💨

What is herd immunity?

Use our glossary of a pandemic to help navigate through news and media about the pandemic!

Our definitions are split over 3 categories:

  • Viruses, Diseases and Patients
  • Testing, Tracing and Lab work
  • Treatments and Therapies
Glossary of a pandemic
Glossary of a pandemic
glossary viruses, diseases and patients
glossary testing tracing and lab work
glossary treatments and therapies

If you think we have missed any words or want us to add more to our glossary, let us know by dropping us an email at info@thesciencesocial.com or getting in touch on any of our social media platforms!

Why don’t you read some of our blog posts about COVID-19!

Or browse our infographics on COVID-19 here.

COVID-19 Infographics

Wash your hands

I’m sure we’re all fed up of hearing “WASH YOUR HANDS” but it really is a quick and easy way to protect yourself and those around you. 👐

We were asked how this actually works and which stages of the handwashing process makes a difference… ❓

Soap and warm water: 💦

The number one preferred method.
Soap contains fatty substances known as amphiphiles. These clever little molecules work to lift things off your hands when you wash them. 🦠Viruses, like the soap are made of fatty molecules. When you mix soap with the virus, it breaks down the outside layer and opens it up. Essentially, “killing” it. Therefore it is no longer infectious.

Hand sanitizer:

This should only be used when you DO NOT have access to soap and clean, running water.Hand sanitizing rubs are also incredibly important for healthcare professionals to use in hospitals, and stocks are running low. 🏥

It is also important to mention, that for hand sanitizers to be effective against viruses, you need at least 60-70% alcohol content in your sanitizer.

Like the soap, this high level of alcohol breaks down the outer shell of the virus and causes it to break down.
Now..
How long do you need to wash your hands for? @who recommend singing happy birthday twice through to yourself (lasting for 20-30 seconds). ⌛
But there have been plenty of other suggestions…. What has been your favourite? Comment below ⬇️

COVID-19 Infographics

The Self Isolation Timeline

Here is our easy guide to The Self Isolation Timeline:

We’ve had a couple of queries about self isolation and when the clock should start and stop.

🔴 If you develop symptoms, however mild, you must self isolate in your home for 7️⃣ days post onset or until you no longer have symptoms. ⁣

🔵 If you live with someone who has developed symptoms, you must also self isolate but for 1️⃣4️⃣ days from the onset of your housemates symptoms. ⁣

⭐️ 🔴 If you develop symptoms during the 14 day isolation period, the clock resets for you ⏱. You must now self isolate for 7️⃣ days from the onset of your symptoms or until you are symptom free. ⁣

The Self Isolation Timeline:

Self isolation timeline

For more information on social distancing, self isolation and ‘shielding’ post.

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