Today we are introducing you in brief to Tick-bourne encephalitis virus, another flavivirus spread by ticks!
Tick-bourne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a positive sense single stranded RNA virus, belonging to the flavivirus family. See other flavivirus Dengue here.
The name self-explanatory, a virus which is carried by ticks and causes encephalitis! The first recorded case dates back to the 18th century Scandinavian church records (Lindquist & Vapalahti, 2008).
- Ixodes spp. a species of tick, transmits the virus to humans, though the cycle includes birds and deer.
- Nymphs have reduced host specificity – so are the most important for human transmission!
- The brain.
- Dendritic cells found in the skin.
- Neutrophils – a type of immune cell.
- Ixodes spp. are responsible for transmission of TBEV to humans.
- Habitats range from western Europe to the eastern coast of Japan (Lindquist & Vapalahti, 2008).
Did you know?
Recent studies indicate that the thread of TBEV in europe will escalate with climate change as climate change forces the viruses host northwards. (Nah et al, 2020).
- Kuno G, Chang GJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N, Cropp CB. Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol. 1998 Jan;72(1) 73-83. doi:10.1128/jvi.72.1.73-83.1998. PMID: 9420202; PMCID: PMC109351.
- Labuda, M., Austyn, J. M., Zuffova, E., Kozuch, O., Fuchsberger, N., Lysy, J., & Nuttall, P. A. (1996). Importance of localized skin infection in tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission. Virology, 219(2), 357–366. https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1996.0261
- Lindquist, L., & Vapalahti, O. (2008). Tick-borne encephalitis. The Lancet, 371(9627), 1861–1871. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60800-4
- Nah, K., Bede-Fazekas, Á., Trájer, A.J. et al. The potential impact of climate change on the transmission risk of tick-borne encephalitis in Hungary. BMC Infect Dis 20, 34 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4734-4